12.08.19 - 16.08.19 in Cottbus, main building HG 2.44, 9:15 – 13:00
12.08.
L01
Introduction
  • History of artificial crystals, institutions growing crystals in Germany, basic terms, Is there an ideal growth method?
  • Melt growth
    • Synthesis of gemstones by Verneuil, CZ - Czochralski growth, FZ - float zone growth without crucible, Bridgman method, Micro Pulling Down (μPD), Skull melting
  • Solution growth
    • Aqueous solution, Hydro-thermal synthesis, melt solution
  • Vapour phase
    • Vapour phase epitaxy (VPE and CVT)
  • Applications for single crystals
12.08.
L02
Thermodynamics, symmetry
  • Thermodynamics in crystal growth
    • Basics theorems, Gibbs phase rule, Vapour pressure, Phase diagrams, Phase transitions
  • Crystal structure, Diffraction of X-rays, Reciprocal lattice, Millers indices, Unit cells Stereographic projection, Equilibrium shape of crystals
13.08.
L03
Seeding, growth, transport
  • Phase transition, homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation
  • Models interface and interface kinetics, Nucleation from vapour phase, Growth modes
  • General growth rate, Vapour Transport
  • Non-stoichiometry, Kinetics
  • Chemical transport at higher pressure
13.08.
L04
Melt 1: methods, dimensionless numbers, segregation
  • CZ - Czochralski growth, Si- production
  • FZ - float zone growth without crucible, equipment & crystals
  • Bridgman or vertical gradient freezing (VGF) method
  • Transport mechanisms: Convection, Thermo diffusion, Motion equation
  • Characteristic numbers, Prandtl-& Rayleigh -number
  • Segregation: equilibrium & effective distribution coefficien
  • External forces to suppress striations
  • Constitutional supercooling (CSC), criterion for stable growth
  • Perturbation theory, Morphological instability
14.08.
L05
Melt 2: microgravity and modelling
  • Strategy to improve crystal quality on earth
  • Melt at µg-conditions, external forces
  • µg for FZ, Cz, VB and PVT
  • Modelling on different time scales
  • Transport equations for heat, impulse and mass, Navier-Stokes-Equation
  • Examples for VB and Cz growth
14.08.
L06
Real structure and crystal machining
  • Point defects - thermodynamic necessity, types of native disorder, dislocations and their motion at high temperature, interaction of dislocations, types of linear defects, interfaces, second phase
  • Crystal machining, roughness, hardness, wafer characterisation
15.08.
L07
Vapour growth of wide band gap bulk materials
  • PVT of ZnSe (also CVT), AlN (see L12) and SiC
15.08.
L08
Defects, doping and positron annihilation
  • polytype instability, stacking faults, defect analysis and formation models
16.08.
L09
Vapour phase epitaxy
  • Epitaxial methods, growth modes
  • Stages of lattice misfit, hetero-epitaxial techniques
  • Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) – diamond, Aixtron machine
  • Characterisation Methods
  • Halide Vapour Growth Epitaxy (HVPE)
16.08.
L10
Aqueous solution, ammonothermal growth (issue of homework)
  • History, evaporation method
  • Hydrothermal-, Ammonothermal growth
  • Semiconductors, oxides
19.08.19 - 20.08.19 at IKZ, Time by appointment
19.08.
L11
Growth from melt solution, liquid phase epitaxy
  • Travelling Solvent Method TSM and Travelling Heater Method THM
  • Top Seeded Solution Growth TSSG
  • Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE)
  • Flux for compound semiconductors
19.08.
L12
Nitrides
  • Properties
  • Bulk growth methods
    • AlN growth (sublimation)
    • GaN growth & characterisation
20.08.
L13
Nano-structures and visit of IKZ-labs (return of homework)
  • Quantum wells QW, application, MBE for ZnO and organic material
  • Quantum wires, growth of Si nano-whiskers on Si substrates
  • Qantum dots QD
  • Graphene